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Hayeswater Pipeline, Bankwood to Raisbeck, Cumbria Archaeological Evaluation and Survey Report

Ferguson, Arran (2005) Hayeswater Pipeline, Bankwood to Raisbeck, Cumbria Archaeological Evaluation and Survey Report. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Oxford Archaeology North (OA North) was requested by United Utilities to examine the archaeological implications of the construction of sections of a proposed pipeline route in
central Cumbria. One section extended through the areas around Pooley Bridge, Askham, Helton, Bampton and Shap (NY 4781 2492–5615 1256). The other section ran between
Bankwood and Raisbeck, across the Eden valley (NY 6437 0758–7317 1948). Both areas comprise extensive landscapes containing a rich range of archaeological monuments
extending from the Neolithic period through to the present. Some of the sites are Scheduled Monuments, deemed to be of national importance, and as such are protected from any disturbance. Following on from, and informed by, an initial rapid assessment and the walk-over survey, an archaeological evaluation of the proposed route of the pipeline between Bankwood and Raisbeck was carried out between January and February 2004, the evaluation work in the Pooley Bridge to Shap section is covered by a separate report. In conjunction with this, an archaeological survey was undertaken of selected earthwork monuments. Following on from the evaluation, selected sections of the route of particular
significance, were examined by watching brief. This report outlines the findings of the evaluation, the survey and the watching brief.
During the course of the evaluation, four areas of archaeological interest were located. The first area of potential, east of Little Asby, produced a small quantity of medieval pottery, which is thought to be associated with a large sub-rectangular platform (Site 141) extant as
an earthwork to a height of 100mm, approximately 10m from the proposed route of the pipeline. Within this same field, approximately 100m west of the platform discussed
above, was a circular feature with an earthen bank (Site 140) extant to a height of 80mm. A possible entrance was situated at the north-western end of the feature, which was located approximately 35m south of the proposed corridor of the pipeline. It was, therefore, decided that further archaeological investigation needed to take place prior to construction in this area. Three trenches (Trenches 94–6) were excavated within the easement of the
pipeline as near as possible to these earthworks. No features were discovered, although medieval pottery and flint artefacts were recovered from the topsoil.
A second area of archaeological potential was identified in the environs of Bleatarn Common. Aerial photography of the field immediately west of the proposed pipeline indicated a large rectilinear enclosure, visible as a crop mark. Extensive trial trenching in this area revealed a single pit, within which a flint waste flake was recovered. The
morphology of the enclosure indicated a possible prehistoric date, which is further supported by the feature located during trial trenching and the associated lithic find.
Additional trenching was undertaken in this area so as to explore fully the area adjacent to the cropmark site, but this did not reveal any further features.
A third area was located to the north-west of Sandford, where a shallow ditch with a rounded profile was revealed within the base of Trench 50 (Fig 15). Although no dating
evidence was recovered, it was aligned differently from the present field boundaries, suggesting an earlier field system associated with the settlement of Sandford. Because of
the potential for further field system remains a watching brief was maintained around the north-west side of the village, but this did not reveal additional features.
The fourth area was to the south of the A6 road, near Dike Nook Farm. Here a further boundary ditch was recorded in Trench 58 (Figs 15 and 17), which was aligned Hayeswater Pipeline - Bankwood to Raisbeck, Cumbria: Archaeological Evaluation and Survey Report 4 For the use of United Utilities © OA North: January 2005 perpendicular to the line of the A66. The A66 is on the line of the Roman road between
Carlisle and York, and therefore the ditch has the potential of being part of a field system within the hinterland of the road. A watching brief was maintained during the topsoil strip for this section and revealed two further boundary ditches which were part of a similar field system.
A topographic survey, carried out in March / April 2004, recorded a total of nine sites; these included Site 8 in the area of Sandford Village; Site 96 (Fig 7), a linear field
boundary earthwork; Site 100 (Plate 2), a hedgerow along Newlands Road; Site 105 (Plates 3-4), an extensive area of ridge and furrow near Bleatarn Common; Site 108 (Plate
5), an earlier trackway along Hag Lane north of Warcop; Site 111 (Plate 6), a possible lynchet again near Sandford Village; an area of ridge and furrow (Site 142) (Plate 1), near Gallansay; and a ring feature (Site 140) and platform (Site 141) near Little Asby. The remaining sites, Sites 18, 21 and 109 were all found to be well away from any direct or
indirect impact from the pipeline and were therefore not recorded.

Item Type: Client Report
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Cumbria
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC
Period > UK Periods > Iron Age 800 BC - 43 AD
Period > UK Periods > Neolithic 4000 - 2200 BC
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology North
Depositing User: barker
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2022 13:36
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2022 13:36
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/6536

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