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Medieval to modern remains at Newmarket Road, Barnwell, Cambridge - PXA and UPD

Atkins, Robert (2015) Medieval to modern remains at Newmarket Road, Barnwell, Cambridge - PXA and UPD. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Archaeological excavation by Oxford Archaeology East extending over 260.31m² was conducted at 132-136 Newmarket Rd, Barnwell, Cambridge (TL 4629 5886) between 23rd September and 27th October 2014 in advance of 13 residential flats with four commercial spaces at ground floor. This work followed on from a trench evaluation within the site (Barlow and Thompson 2014).
Deeply stratified remains up to 1m deep was uncovered across the site. The earliest features dated from when the site was part of the lay settlement of Barnwell Priory. At least three phases of medieval activity was found with firstly, possible fragments of enclosure ditches which date from c.AD 1200. Secondly, part of a post hole building with a hearth was found fronting onto Newmarket Road and behind this building were contemporary pits. In the late medieval period part of large building was uncovered, comprising a robbed wall, fragmentary remains of two clay floors abutting up to it on its eastern and western side. Within/cutting the floors were a hearth and a possible stone latrine feature with the results of a bulk environmental from its backfill supporting the latter interpretation. Further pits were contemporary with this building and some of these contained large quantities of charred plant remains.
After Dissolution there was a reduction in the quantity of features. The western half of the plot was part of the former Barnwell Priory Estate with possibly a farm house directly to the west of the excavation area. Two well-made clunch walled features found in this part of the plot comprising a detached latrine complex which went out of use by the early 17th century, and a well backfilled in the later 18th century. A small post hole backplot structure and a ditch also belonged to this phase. The eastern half was within part of a plot owned by Benet College. In this area was a substantial quarry pit which had been backfilled with a notable assemblage of artefacts including building demolition waste dating to c.AD 1600.
In the post AD 1800 period there was a dramatic increase in the quantity of features found. Remains of five early 19th century buildings were uncovered, two of which had dual use, comprising The Jolly Butchers which was both a butchers and a pub, and the other being both a grocers and a baker. Three domestic buildings were also found, with one surviving in good condition with brick floors, an internal chimney and an outside brick paved courtyard. Three pits dating to the 1820's, probably in the courtyard of the Jolly Butchers, contained notable assemblages especially clay pipe remains which these have been classified as regionally important.
All five buildings seemed to have survived, albeit with some changes, to c.1969 when all were demolished for the widening of Newmarket Road. An industrial building was then constructed within the site.

Item Type: Client Report
Uncontrolled Keywords: archaeological excavation, cambridgeshire, cambridge, newmarket road, medieval, post-medieval, modern, barnwell, barnwell priory, building, enclosure, farm, latrine, pottery, clay pipe, clay tobacco pipe, ctp, quarry pit, settlement, benet college, the jolly butcher, animal remains, post built structure, clunch, well, dissolution
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Cambridgeshire
Period > UK Periods > Medieval 1066 - 1540 AD
Period > UK Periods > Modern 1901 - present
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology East
Depositing User: Chris Faine
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2017 09:15
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2017 09:15
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/3141

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