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Early Iron Age and medieval to modern settlement remains at Harvest Way, Barnwell, Cambridge: PXA and UPD

Atkins, Robert (2015) Early Iron Age and medieval to modern settlement remains at Harvest Way, Barnwell, Cambridge: PXA and UPD. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Archaeological excavation by Oxford Archaeology East extending over a 2440.9m² area was conducted at 9-15 Harvest Way, Barnwell, Cambridge (TL 4635 5887) between 3rd February and 27th June 2014 in advance of 75 apartments and shop frontages with associated services and access routes. This work followed on from a trench evaluation within the site (Atkins 2013b).
A crouched burial of a male adult with its head located to the north was found within five metres of Newmarket Road and was radiocarbon dated to 800-546 cal BC. Small parts of further human remains were found residually in contexts dating from the medieval to Victorian periods. Fragments of a probable prehistoric field system(s) was also uncovered and could be Iron Age in date.
For the medieval period the evidence indicates a densely populated site beginning n the 13th century and probably instigated by the Prior of Barnwell to provide services for the Monks and Lay Brothers. Features include evidence of several timber framed buildings with associated floors, hearths, wells and pits. Many of the buildings were associated with groups of industrial or craft working features such as clay-lined tanks and possible kilns.
A large assemblage of finds was recovered from the medieval period features including pottery, animal bones and personal items.
In the period immediately following the Dissolution the density of occupation apparently reduced, possibly due to amalgamation of properties to form a smaller number of larger holdings. Of particular interest is a property that may be the site of a high status building, later referred to as the “old manor”. A cess-pit or latrine associated with this building was constructed from a large number of architectural fragments, presumably taken from the dissolved priory.
A possible inn and stable complex built in brick in c.17th century was built in the middle of the site and burnt down in the early 18th century, possibly as a direct result of a fire documented in 1731. The cellar of this building contained an interesting artefact collection including stone ware flagons, candles/lamps and clay tobacco pipes.
The evidence suggests that wholesale rebuilding using clunch took place in the mid 18th century, possibly as a result of the fire.
In the 1820s and 1830s there was an increase in buildings within the site. There were up to three pubs (George, Shamrock and Black Bull) fronting Newmarket Road, and infilling of the eastern half of the site with two yards (Shamrock Passage and Brown's Yard) with terraced houses fronting both. Later in the 19th century, Leeke Street was built, followed by Harvest Way. During the 19th century small scale industry including specialist glass making was taking place on the site.
The housing and associated small scale industries continue into the 20th century, only being replaced in the 1960s when Newmarket Road was widened and the vacant land was redeveloped for commercial industry with the erection of industrial units.

Item Type: Client Report
Uncontrolled Keywords: archaeological excavation, cambridgeshire, cambridge, barnwell, barnwell priory, pxa, upd, post-excavation assessment, updated project design, medieval, post-medieval, modern, iron age, field system, burial, pottery, lay settlement, timber-framed, building, well, latrine, hearth, floor, dissolution, garden soil, coaching inn, stone ware, flagon, tobacco pipe, lamp, industry, glass making, college, pub, brick building, re-used stone, terrace
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Cambridgeshire
Period > UK Periods > Iron Age 800 BC - 43 AD
Period > UK Periods > Medieval 1066 - 1540 AD
Period > UK Periods > Modern 1901 - present
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology East
Depositing User: Chris Faine
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2017 11:13
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2017 11:13
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/3162

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