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Iron Age, Roman and Middle to early Late Saxon Settlements at the site of the Peterborough Gas Compressor Station, Glinton

Rees, Gareth (2016) Iron Age, Roman and Middle to early Late Saxon Settlements at the site of the Peterborough Gas Compressor Station, Glinton. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Between the 10th October and 25th November 2015 Oxford Archaeology East carried out an archaeological excavation at the site of the new Peterborough Gas Compressor Station, Glinton, Peterborough (TF 1527 0465). The works consisted of two open area excavations targeted upon locations where trial trenching, geophysical and aerial photographic surveys had identified archaeological features.
Two excavation areas were opened, Area 1 (0.26ha) located to the south of the development area and Area 2 (0.6ha) located to the north. The results of the excavation support the evidence found during the evaluation which indicated the presence of a Middle Roman field system on the edge of a settlement in Area 1 and an Iron Age settlement in Area 2. A previously unknown Middle to early Late Saxon building and field system were also located in Area 2 during the excavation.
The earliest settlement evidence was revealed in Area 2, represented by two post-built structures, three waterholes and numerous pits that originated in the Early Iron Age. All of the waterholes were backfilled with large quantities of domestic waste particularly cattle bone and pottery. A copper alloy ring-headed pin, dated to the Early Iron Age, was recovered from one of the waterholes. This open settlement was divided in the Middle Iron Age by a boundary ditch running from the north-west to the south-east across Area 2. A 20m-wide enclosure that may have been the location of another dwelling or a means of separating livestock, was constructed to the north of the boundary. A large amount of Scored Ware pottery recovered from these ditches indicates that occupation was still located nearby at this time. The complete upper part of a bee-hive rotary quern was recovered from this enclosure ditch.
Late Iron Age pottery was recovered residually from later contexts, however no features were uncovered associated with this phase.
Evidence for Roman occupation was uncovered in Area 1, located 110m to the south. Previous work, including trial trenching and a geophysical survey had indicated that the northernmost part of a Roman field system was located in this area. The number of artefacts recovered, including ten coins, pottery and animal bones, demonstrates that a settlement, peaking during the 2nd to the mid 4th century, was located nearby. A series of small enclosures were established in the 2nd century AD. An east to west running boundary ditch, backfilled in the 3rd century, marked the northern extent of the activity. An east-west aligned inhumation, probably dating to the late Roman period was uncovered to the east of the area. The field system continued in the south-west corner of the excavation area. In the late 3rd to 4th century AD two large waterholes and a series of pits were cut.
The latest activity on the site occurred in Area 2 and dates to the Middle to early Late Saxon period. This consisted of a post-built structure and a rectilinear field system. No pottery was recovered, however, two radiocarbon dates obtained from charred grain and animal bone indicate dates in the range of the late 8th to mid 10th centuries. A fragment of a bone comb dating to this period was also recovered from one of the postholes of the structure.
The latest activity on the site was represented by a series of medieval or post-medieval furrows in both excavation areas, and a post-medieval boundary ditch running north to south through Area 2.

Item Type: Client Report
Uncontrolled Keywords: archaeological excavation, cambridgeshire, peterborough, glinton, roman, iron age, saxon, settlement, pottery, coin, field system, saxon field system, roman pottery, iron age pottery, post-roman, early medieval, animal bone, roman field system, lithic, inhumation, burial, post-built structure, boundary ditch
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Cambridgeshire
Period > UK Periods > Early Medieval 410 - 1066 AD
Period > UK Periods > Iron Age 800 BC - 43 AD
Period > UK Periods > Roman 43 - 410 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology East
Depositing User: Chris Faine
Date Deposited: 16 Mar 2017 08:45
Last Modified: 16 Mar 2017 08:45
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/3172

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