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Mesolithic to Post-medieval archaeology on the route of the Chelmsford Effluent Pipeline, Essex

Gilmour, Nick (2015) Mesolithic to Post-medieval archaeology on the route of the Chelmsford Effluent Pipeline, Essex. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Between 12th March and 22nd May 2014 Oxford Archaeology East carried out archaeological work in advance of the construction of a new effluent pipeline, between Chelmsford and Langford, Essex. This involved the excavation of five areas, totalling 2.4ha, along with four evaluation trenches and a borehole survey. The excavation areas revealed features dating from most periods between the Mesolithic and modern.
A Mesolithic deposit of cremated human bone in a pit was the first cremated human bone from this period to be identified in Britain. This deposit included 118g of cremated bone, along with three stuck flints. This was complemented by the discovery of further Mesolithic flints across the site.
Three Early Neolithic pits, containing pottery and flint were excavated, along with several Middle Neolithic pits, which contained Peterbrough Ware pottery. A single pit also contained a substantial quantity of Beaker pottery and flint.
A largely ploughed-out barrow was investigated and the primary unurned cremation was dated to 1872-1639 calBC. Five further urned cremations were later inserted into this barrow during the Middle Bronze Age.
Part of an Early Roman field system, which had previously been identified from cropmarks, was also investigated. These ditches seem to have related to a settlement, just outside of the excavated area.
A substantial Early Saxon settlement, including at least seven halls and two sunken- featured buildings, was excavated at the eastern end of the pipeline route, close to Langford. Although finds from this area were quite scarce, the pottery recovered dates from the 6th to 7th centuries AD.
Part of a medieval building platform was also uncovered, along with ditches and pits of the same date. Although no definite buildings were visible, structural remains including postholes and beamslots were found. Activity in this area appears to have begun during the 12th or 13th century AD and continued at varying levels of intensity throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods.

Item Type: Client Report
Uncontrolled Keywords: archaeological excavation, archaeological evaluation, pipeline, essex, chelmsford, langford, mesolithic, cremation, cremated bone, urned, unurned, neolithic, early neolithic, middle neolithic, pit, peterborough ware, bronze age, beaker ware, pottery, barrow, middle bronze age, field system, cultivation, roman, early roman, cropmark, saxon, early saxon, early medieval, settlement, hall, sfb, sunken-featured building, grubenhaus, building platform, medieval, post-medieval, struck flint, lithic, lithics, mesolithic cremation, hsr
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Essex
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC
Period > UK Periods > Neolithic 4000 - 2200 BC > Early Neolithic 4000 - 3000 BC
Period > UK Periods > Medieval 1066 - 1540 AD
Period > UK Periods > Mesolithic 10,000 - 4,000 BC
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC > Middle Bronze Age 1600 - 1,000 BC
Period > UK Periods > Neolithic 4000 - 2200 BC > Middle Neolithic 3500 - 2700 BC
Period > UK Periods > Neolithic 4000 - 2200 BC
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
Period > UK Periods > Roman 43 - 410 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology East
Depositing User: Chris Faine
Date Deposited: 21 Nov 2017 08:58
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2017 08:58
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/3387

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