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Later Bronze Age, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon remains at land off St Faith’s Road, Old Catton, Norwich

Kwiatkowska, Malgorzata (2021) Later Bronze Age, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon remains at land off St Faith’s Road, Old Catton, Norwich. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Between 24th June and 11th September 2019 Oxford Archaeology East (OA East) conducted an archaeological excavation at land off St Faith’s Road, Old Catton, Norwich (centred TG 22934 13287) ahead of residential development. The area was initially evaluated by Archaeology South-East in early 2019 (ASE 2019). Three areas (A – C) were identified as needing further investigation – two located towards the eastern edge of the proposed development area, and a small area within the south-western quadrant of the site. The excavations uncovered remains dating principally from the Neolithic, Later Bronze Age, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon periods, along with features of post-medieval and modern date.
Five features within Areas B and C dated to the Early Neolithic period, including two tree root hollows, two post holes (excavated during the evaluation of the site) and a pit. Together these features produced 1373g of Early Neolithic pottery.
Later Bronze Age activity was identified within Area B, beginning with the construction of a sub-rectangular enclosure and a scatter of discrete features which produced Middle Bronze Age finds. Ditched on three sides, the fourth side of the enclosure was delineated by a post hole alignment. During the Late Bronze Age, settlement was established within the enclosure, represented by six post-built structures (including one with an obvious porch) and discrete pits. Pit 715, in the southern half of the settlement, was of particular interest; in addition to Late Bronze Age pottery recovered from the pit, the bulk sample yielded grains of emmer, barley, flax and millet. As well as Late Bronze Age radiocarbon determinations from the emmer and flax seeds, one of the millet seeds returned a date of 909-806 cal. BC, currently the earliest recorded use of broomcorn millet in Britain.
Activity at the site intensified again in the mid 1st – 2nd century AD. An Early Romano-British field system extended across the western half of Area B, with a single ditch identified in Area A. Possible evidence of a Romano-British structure was identified in the southern half of the main enclosure, while the truncated remains of a pottery kiln was encountered in the north of the same enclosure. The presence of two specialist vessels (a Hofheim-type flagon and a mortarium mixing bowl) might be suggestive of a military connection to the site, especially as cropmarks of a possible marching camp were identified c. 600m north of the investigated area (NHER 16451).
A single Romano-British burial was identified on the site. This urned cremation of a single individual was located outside of the enclosure system.
In the post-Roman period, shallow, charcoal filled pits were encountered across Areas B and C. Samples acquired from two of these features yielded calibrated dates placing them in the late 8th to early 10th century (cal. AD 764-890 and cal. AD 774-903), securely within the Middle – Later Anglo-Saxon period.
Two post-medieval ditches were encountered within Area B, forming part of a rectilinear field system, with three intercutting extraction pits found within its south-eastern quadrant, suggesting low level quarrying at the site.
The development area remained under cultivation until the First World War, when a possible military practice trench was dug. During the Second World War, the western and southern areas of the site formed part of the Horsham St Faith airfield. The evaluation recognised remains of an aircraft dispersal pan and taxiways, probable service trenches and a bomb crater. After the war, use of the site reverted to cultivation.

Item Type: Client Report
Uncontrolled Keywords: Norfolk, norfolk, Old Catton, old catton, Excavation, excavation, archaeological excavation, Early Neolithic, early neolithic, Bronze Age, bronze age, Middle Bronze Age, middle bronze age, Late Bronze Age, late bronze age, Roman, roman, Early Medieval, early medieval, Post-Medieval, Post Medieval, post-medieval, post medieval, pottery, Pottery, pot, ceramic, sherd, vessel, Early Neolithic pottery, early neolithic pottery, Bronze Age pottery, bronze age pottery, Middle Bronze Age pottery, middle bronze age pottery, Late Bronze Age pottery, late bronze age pottery, Roman pottery, roman pottery, Post-Medieval pottery, Post Medieval pottery, post-medieval pottery, post medieval pottery, cremation, cremation burial, Roman cremation, Roman cremation burial, cinerary vessel, urned cremation, cremation vessel, roman cremation, human remains, cremated human remains, ditch, ditches, field ditch, roman field system, Roman field system, agriculture, farming, charcoal, charcoal pit, early medieval charcoal pit, kiln, pottery kiln, Roman kiln, roman kiln, Roman pottery kiln, roman pottery kiln, kiln furniture, portable kiln furniture, weight, triangular weight, Late Bronze Age triangular weight, late bronze age triangular weight, roundhouse, round house, structure, post-medieval field system, ecofact, ecofacts, CPR, cpr, charred plant remains, millet, 2381, report 2381, Report 2381, OAE report 2381
Subjects: Geographical Areas > English Counties > Norfolk
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC
Period > UK Periods > Early Medieval 410 - 1066 AD
Period > UK Periods > Neolithic 4000 - 2200 BC > Early Neolithic 4000 - 3000 BC
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC > Late Bronze Age 1000 - 700 BC
Period > UK Periods > Iron Age 800 BC - 43 AD > Late Iron Age 100 BC - 43 AD
Period > UK Periods > Bronze Age 2500 - 700 BC > Middle Bronze Age 1600 - 1,000 BC
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
Period > UK Periods > Roman 43 - 410 AD
Divisions: Oxford Archaeology East
Depositing User: Hamilton
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2021 09:59
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2021 09:59
URI: http://eprints.oxfordarchaeology.com/id/eprint/6164

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